Final Apical Sizes – Survey Results

November 19, 2008


Results speak for themselves.

Interesting New Article Regarding Irrigation

October 13, 2008

New article from the International Academy for Rotary Endodontics states that:

“There are so many systems which help you deliver the irrigants safely to the canals, but the safest and best in recent times is Endovac, it almost absolutely ensures safely of your patient and avoids nasty hypochlorite accidents in addition to giving you the cleanest possible apical portion ensuring success in single visit endo.”

To read the article in its entirety visit:

Bibliography of Articles Referencing LightSpeed, Simplifill and EndoVac

October 8, 2008


We’ve recently received several inquiries requesting a list of clinical references for our instrumentation, irrigation and obturation products.  Steven Senia has been kind enough to assemble a master list, which is shown below in it’s entirety.

EndoVac & Related Articles 

G. John Schoeffel. The EndoVac Method of Endodontic Irrigation, Part 2 – Efficacy. Dentistry Today, January 2008; Vol. 27: No. 1. 

G. John Schoeffel. The EndoVac Method of Endodontic Irrigation, Safety First. Dentistry Today, October 2007; Vol. 26: No. 10.

Mehdipour, Kleier, Averbach. Anatomy of Sodium Hypochlorite Accidents. Clinical Techniques in Endodontics. Compendium, October 2007.

Benjamin A. Nielsen and J. Craig Baumgartner. Comparison of the EndoVac System to Needle Irrigation of Root Canals. J Endodon, May 2007, Vol. 33:5: 611 – 615.

C. Boutsioukis, et al. Measurement of pressure and flow rates during irrigation of a root canal ex vivo with three endodontic needles. International Endodontic Journal, 40, 504-513, 2007.

Y. Fukumoto, et al . An ex vivo evaluation of a new root canal irrigation technique with intracanal aspiration. International Endodontic Journal, 39, 93-99, 2006. 

LightSpeed Articles

R. Boyd, D. Ross. Endodontics in Small Animal Dentistry. Endo Tribune, October, 2008, Vol. 3, No. 10, pp. 1 – 7. 

E. S. Senia. Endodontic success and working length: thinking 3-dimensionally. Endo Tribune, April  2008, pp. 1, 13 – 14.

E. S. Senia. Endodontic success: It’s all about the apical third. Endo Tribune, March 2008, pp. 8 – 12.

E. S. Senia, W. L. Wildey. What’s New in Ni-Ti Rotary Instrumentation (Reprint): Endodontic Practice, February 2008; pp 33 – 39.

Francis Allen.  In vivo study of apical cleaning. General Dentistry, September/October 2007, 449-456.

Iqbal M, Ku J. Instrumentation and Obturation of the Apical Third of Root Canals: Addressing the Forgotten Dimension. Compendium, June 2007:28(6); 314-321.

E. S. Senia, W. L. Wildey. What’s New in Ni-Ti Rotary Instrumentation: Part 2. Dentistry Today, April 2007; Vol. 26: No. 4.

Mian Iqbal, Brian Banfield, Amanda Lavorini, Benedict Bachstien. A Comparison of LightSpeed LS1 and Lightspeed LSX® NiTi Rotary Instruments in Apical Transportation and Length Control in Simulated Root Canals. J Endodon, March 2007, 33:3, pp. 268-271.

E. S. Senia, W. L. Wildey. What’s New in Ni-Ti Rotary Instrumentation: Part 1. Dentistry Today, March 2007; Vol. 26: No. 3.

ADA Professional Product Review. Fall 2006. Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 11- 16.

Tibor Bartha, et al. Extended apical enlargement with hand files versus rotary NiTi files. Part II. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, November 2006, Vol. 102, No. 5, pp. 692-697.

Roland Weiger, et al. A clinical method to determine the optimal apical preparation size. Part I. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, November 2006, Vol. 102, No. 5, pp. 686-691.

Mian Iqbal, et al. A Comparison of Three Methods for Preparing Centered Platforms Around Separated Instruments in Curved Canals. J Endodon, January 2006, 32:1, pp. 48 – 51.

Kenneth Knowles, Nathan Hammond, Stephen Biggs, Jose Ibarrola. Incidence of Instrument Separation Using LightSpeed Rotary Instruments. J Endodon, January 2006, 32:1, pp. 14 – 16.

Daniel Pinto de Oliveira DDS, MSc , Fabricio Batista Teixeira DDS, MSc, PhD, Martin Trope DMD, MS. UNC at Chapel Hill. Evaluation of the Lightspeed® LSX instrumentation technique for cleanliness and maintenance of original canal shape. October 2005. Submitted for Publication.

E. Steve Senia, William L. Wildey. The LightSpeed root canal instrumentation system. Endodontic Topics 2005, Vol. 10, pp. 148-150. Article

Patsandra Lam, Joseph Palamara, Harold Messer. Fracture Strength of Tooth Roots following Canal Preparation by Hand and Rotary Instrumentation. J Endodon, July 2005, 31:7: 529 – 532.

H. Sharma, V. Shivanna. Smear layer removal using manual instrumentation of “K” file versus LightSpeed, Profile and Hero 642 instrumentation: A scanning electron microscope study. Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, College of Dental Studies.

Paul J. Weller, Timothy Svec, John Powers, John Ludington, John Suchina. Remaining Dentin Thickness in the Apical 4 mm Following Four Cleaning and Shaping Techniques. J Endodon, June 2005, 31:6: 464 – 467.

C. Feller. Another Peaceful Day in the Trenches. The Business of Endodontics. Penwell Publishing. March 2005. pp 6 – 7.

E. Steve. Senia, William L. Wildey. Single-Visit Endodontics – A Time for Change. Dentaltown, September 2004, 42-48.

Keith Stein, DVM, Sandra Manfra, DVM, Arthur Seigel, DVM PhD, Jeanne Vitroux, CVT. Comparison of Hand-Instrumented, Heated Gutta-Percha and Engine-Driven, Cold-Gutta-Percha Endodontic Techniques. J. Vet. Dent, Vol. 21 No. 3 September 2004.

Peters. Current Challenges and Concepts in the Preparation of Root Canal Systems: A Review. J Endodon, August 2004, 30:8: 559-567.

F. Barbakow. The LightSpeed System. The Dental Clinics of North America. 2004: 48; 113 – 135.

C. R. Feller. Endodontics for Enjoyment and Profitability. Dental Economics, January 2004; pp 91 – 93.

E. S. Senia, W. L. Wildey. Single-Visit Endodontics, Part 2. Dentistry Today, November 2003; Vol. 22: No. 11.

E. S. Senia, W. L. Wildey. Single-Visit Endodontics, Part 1. Dentistry Today, October 2003; Vol. 22: No. 10: pp 120-127.

Offer Zuckerman, Alexander Katz, Raphael Pilo, Aviad Tamse and Zvi Fuss. Residual dentin thickness in mesial roots of mandibular molars prepared with LightSpeed rotary instruments and Gates-Glidden reamers. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, 2003, Vol. 96, pp 351-5.

R. Weiger, M. Bruckner, A. ElAyouti, C. Lost. Preparation of curved root canals with rotary FlexMaster instruments compared to LightSpeed instruments and NiTi hand files. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 483-490, 2003.

JL Chen, HH Messer. A comparison of stainless steel hand and rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation using a silicone impression technique. Australian Dental Journal, 47:1, 12-20, 2002.

Card, Sigurdsson, Orstakvik and Trope. The Effectiveness of Increased Apical Enlargement in Reducing Intracanal Bacteria. J Endodon, November 2002, 28:11:779-783.

L. Bergmans, et al. Smooth flexible versus active tapered shaft design using NiTi rotary instruments. International Endodontic Journal, 35, 820-828, 2002.

Boon Tik Tan, Harold H. Messer. The Quality of Apical Preparation Using Hand and Rotary Instruments with Specific Criteria for Enlargement Based on Initial Apical File Size. J Endodon, September 2002; 28:9:658-664.

M.K. Wu, D. Barkis, A. Roris., and P. Wesselink. Does the first file to bind correspond to the diameter of the canal in the apical region? International Endodontic Journal, 35, 264-267, 2002.

Roland Weiger, Ashraf ElAyouti, Claus Lost. Efficiency of Hand and Rotary Instruments in Shaping Oval Root Canals. J Endodon, August 2002; 28:8:580-583.

J. Versumer, M. Hulsmann, & F. Schafers. A comparative study of root canal preparation using ProFile .04 and LightSpeed rotary Ni-Ti instruments. International Endodontic Journal, 35, 37-46, 2002.

Spangberg, L. The Wonderful World of Rotary Root Canal Preparation (Editoral). Oral Surgery, Oral Medical, Oral Pathology November 2001; Vol. 92, No. 5: pg. 479.

DeJong-deWaard, Ommeren, Ny, Schaefer & Wesselink. Cleaning efficacy of three rotary and one hand instrumentation technique in endodontic therapy. ESE 10th Biennial Congress, October 2001. R59, pg. 21.

Rieger. Root canal preparation with LightSpeed – examination of 2085 root canal treatments in private practice. ESE 10th Biennial Congress, October 2001. O61, pg. 12.

Zuckerman, Katz, Pilo, Tamse & Fuss. Residual dentine thickness in mesial roots of mandibular molars prepared with LightSpeed. ESE 10th Biennial Congress, October 2001. R61, pg. 22.

E. S. Senia. Canal Diameter: The Forgotten Dimension. Dentistry Today, May 2001; Vol. 20: No. 5: pp 58-62.

O. A. Peters, A. L. Laib, T. N. Gohring and F. Barbakow. Changes in Root Canal Geometry after Preparation Assessed by High-Resolution Computed Tomography. J Endodon, January 2001; 27:1:1-6.

L. Abrass, M. Oviedo-Marmo, H. Walsch, Y.T. Jou. In vitro microscopic analysis of apical 3 mm obturation after GT, LightSpeed and Profile canal preparation. J Endodon, Abstracts, September 2000; 26: 9:538.

Jack Mayhew, Paul Eleazer, William Hnat. Stress Analysis of Human Tooth Root Using Various Root Canal Instruments. J Endodon September 2000; 26: 9:523-524.

C. Bechelli, S. Zecchi Orlandi & M. Colafranceseschi. Scanning electron microscope study on the efficacy of root canal wall debridement of hand versus LightSpeed instrumentation. International Endodontic Journal, 32, 484-493, 1999.

Alexander Ahn and Terrence Yu. Effects of Irrigation Solutions on Removal of Smear Layer Using LightSpeed Instrumentation. The Meharri-Dent Journal. Volume XXXIII, Issue 1, 31- 36.

Ove A. Peters and Fred Barbakow. Effects of Irrigation on Debris and Smear Layer on Canal Walls Prepared by Two Rotary Techniques: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study. J Endodon 2000; 26: 6-10.

Andreas Bindl and Fred Barbakow. The LightSpeed technique: experiences with a rotary canal preparation system. Endo Practice 1999; 2: 10-4.

Christine Eggert, Ove Peters, and Fred Barbakow. Wear of Nickel-Titanium LightSpeed Instruments Evaluated by Scanning Microscopy. J Endodon 1999; 25: 494-7.

E. Steve Senia. I LightSpeed: molto di piu che un nuovo strumente (in Italian). L’INFORMATORE ENDODONTICO 1998; 2: 22-27.

Samuel B. Mize, David J. Clement, John P. Pruett, and David L. Carnes. Effect of Sterilization on Cyclic Fatigue of Rotary Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instruments. J Endodon 1998; 24: 843-7.

David B. Shadid, Jack I. Nicholls, and James C. Steiner. A Comparison of Curved Canal Transportation with Balanced Force Versus LightSpeed. J Endodon 1998; 24: 651-4.

E. Steve Senia. LightSpeed: More than just another instrument. Endodontic Practice 1998; 1: 17-23.

Uichi Watanabe, Hiroshi Kato, Shinji Yamaguchi, Tamaki Isono, Hiroshi Haruki, Hideya Watanabe, Akihito Ito and Yasuhiro Asai. Experimental Studies of Mechanical Canal Preparation (Part 1). The Comparison of Three Types Ni Ti Rotary Instruments System (in Japanese). Japanese J Conserv Dent 1998; 41: 410-22.

Heefer, W. J. M. LightSpeed biedt net dat ietsje meer. Netherlands Tandartsenblad 1998; 53: 419-23, (Non-refereed Magazine; written in Dutch).

I. Portenier, F. Lutz & F. Barbakow. Preparation of the apical part of the root canal by the LightSpeed and step-back techniques. Inter Endod J 1998; 31: 103-11.

C. Schrader, B. Sener & F. Barbakow. Evaluating the sizes of LightSpeed instruments. Int Endod J 1998; 31: 295-300.

A. Busslinger, B. Sener & F. Barbakow. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on nickel-titanium LightSpeed instruments. Int Endod J 1998; 31: 290-4.

M. Marending, F. Lutz & f. Barbakow. Scanning electron microscope appearances of LightSpeed instruments used clinically: a pilot study. Int Endod J 1998; 31: 57-62.

Viviane Bouchara and David Tancreto. Spreader depth penetration on canals instrumented with NiTi rotary systems. J Endodon (Abstract) 1998; 24: 299.

C. Fabiani, C. Pisacane, M. Boschi, and V. Franco. Nickel-Titanium vs. Stainless Steel: Comparison of Four Instrumentation Techniques on Canal Transportation. J Endodon (Abstract) 1998; 24: 277.

O. Peters, C. Eggert, F. Barbakow. Remaining debris evaluated by SEM after LightSpeed & ProFile .04 preparations. J Endodon (Abstract) 1998; 24: 277.

Sarina A. Reddy, DDS, and M. Lamar Hicks, DDS, MS. Apical Extrusion of Debris Using Two Hand and Two Rotary Instrumentation Techniques. J Endodon 1998; 24: 180-3.

Christine Eggert, Ove Peters, Eveline Meyer, Fred Barbakow. Aufbereitung gekrummter Wurzelkanale unter Anwendung der LightSpeed-Methode. Teil 2: Praktische Anwendung. Endodontie 1998; 1: 31-40.

Robin E. Hinrichs, William A. Walker, and William G. Schindler. A Comparison of Amounts of Apically Extruded Debris Using Handpiece-Driven Nickel-Titanium Instrument Systems. J Endodon 1998; 24: 102-6.

E. Steve Senia, DDS. LIGHTSPEED- not just another root canal instrument. Dental Equipment & Supplies 1998, 23.

Ove Peters, Christine Eggert, Fred Barbakow. Aufbereitung gekrummter Wurzelkanale unter Anwendung der LightSpeed- Methode. Teil 1: Grundlagen. Endodontie 1997; 3: 267-72.

John Whitworth. A new generation of engine reamer. Independent Dentistry 1997; 2: 74-80.

S.A. Thompson and P.M.H. Dummer. Shaping Ability of LightSpeed Rotary Nickel-Titanium Instruments in Simulated Root Canals. Part 2. J Endodon 1997; 23: 742-7.

S.A. Thompson and P.M.H. Dummer. Shaping Ability of LightSpeed Rotary Nickel-Titanium Instruments in Simulated Root Canals. Part 1. J Endodon 1997; 23: 698-702.

Gerald N. Glickman. Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments for Root Canal Preparation: Are We There Yet? Alpha Omegan 1997; 90 (Number 4): 29-38.

Donald E. Arens. La tecnica crown-down: un approccio diverso. L’informatore Endodontico 1997; 1: 12-27. (Italian translation of article in Dentistry Today 1996; 15: 38-47.

Marco Ramirez-Salomon, Rolando Soler-Bientz, Rafael de la Garza-Gonzalez, and Claudia M. Palacios-Garza. Incidence of LightSpeed Separation and the Potential for Bypassing. J Endodon 1997; 23: 586-7.

Jeffrey A. Short, Leslie A. Morgan, J. Craig Baumgartner. A Comparison of Canal Centering Ability of Four Instrumentation Techniques. J Endodon 1997; 23: 503-7.

Ove Peters, Cristine Eggert, Fred Barbakow. Wurzelkanaloberflachen Nach LightSpeed-Praparation im REM dargestellt – eine Pilotstudie. Endodontie 1997; 3: 225-31.

Miguel Roig-Cayon, Juan Basilio-Monne, Rafael Abos-Herrandiz, Esteban Brau-Aguade, and Carlos Canalda-Sahli. A Comparison of Molar Root Canal Preparations Using Six Instruments and Instrumentation Techniques. J Endodon 1997; 23: 383-6.

F. Barbakow, I. Portenier, & F. Lutz. Root Canal Centers Displaced After Step-Back and LightSpeed Preparations (ABSTRACT). J Endodon April 1997; Page 252.

F. Barbakow and F. Lutz. The “LightSpeed” preparation technique evaluated by Swiss clinicians after attending continuing education courses. Int Endod J 1997; 30: 46-50.

John P. Pruett, David J. Clement and David L. Carnes. Cyclic Fatigue Testing of Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instruments. J Endodon 1997; 23: 77-85.

Ennio S. Marsicovetere, John O. Burgess, David J. Clement, and Carlos E. Del Rio. Torsional Testing of the LightSpeed Nickel-Titanium Instrument System. J Endodon 1996; 22: 681-4.

Heefer, W. J. M. LIGHTSPEED. Netherlands Tandartsenblad 1996: 51: 702-3, (Non-refereed Magazine; written in Dutch).

Arens, Donald E. The Crown-Down Technique: A Paradigm Shift. Dentistry Today 1996; 15: 38-47, (non-refereed magazine).

S. Lodd Tharuni, MDS, A. Parameswaran, MDS, and V. G. Sukumaran. A comparison of canal preparation using the K-file and LightSpeed in resin blocks. J Endodon 1996; 22: 474-6.

Luciano Giardino, Nicola Perrini. Valutazione Morfologica Dell’Anatomia Dei Canali Curvi. I Dossier (Supplemento a Il Dentista Moderno) 1996; 14: 14-21.

Digital Imaging Assessment of Four Root Canal Preparation Techniques. B.E. Hornberger, M.M. Wang, M.R. Rieger (University of Texas-Houston, Dental Branch). J Dent Res (IADR Abstracts) 1996; Page 288.

Ennio S. Marsicovetere, David J. Clement, and Carlos E. del Rio. Morphometric Video Analysis of the Engine-Driven Nickel-Titanium LightSpeed Instrument System. J Endodon 1996; 22: 231-5.

Knowles KI, Ibarrola JL, and Christiansen RK. Assessing apical deformation and transportation following the use of LightSpeed root-canal instruments. Int Endodon J 1996; 29: 113-7.

Poulsen WB, Dove SB, and del Rio CE. Effect of Nickel-Titanium Engine-Driven Instrument Rotational Speed on Root Canal Morphology. J Endodon 1995; 21: 609-12.

Roig Cayon M, Pumarola Sune J, Basilio Monne J. Preparacion biomecanica en endodoncia con nuevas tecnicas de instrumentacion mecanico-rotacionales. ENDODONCIA 1995; 13: 55-67.

Hornberger BE. A comparative assessment of four root canal preparation techniques (Masters Thesis). The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston 1995.

Serene P, Adams JD, Saxena A. Nickel-Titanium instruments: application in endodontics. Ishiyaku EuroAmerica, Inc. 1995: pgs.35,46.

Glosson CR, Haller RH, Dove SB and del Rio CE. A comparison of root canal preparartions using Ni-Ti hand, Ni-Ti engine-driven, and K-Flex endodontic instruments. J Endodon 1995; 21: 146-51.

Lutz F. LightSpeed–a new mechanical root canal preparation method. A report on 2 continuing education courses of the Clinic for Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology, the Center for Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Orthodontics on 16, 17 and 18 June 1994 in Zurich. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 1994;104(11):1423, 1453-4. German; French.

LightSpeed Relevant Articles

Peter Parashos, Harold Messer. Rotary NiTi Instrument Fracture and its Consequences. J Endodon, November 2006, Vol. 32, No. 11, pp. 1031 – 1043.

Andre Mickel, et al. The Role of Apical Size Determination and Enlargement in the Reduction of Intracanal Bacteria.  J Endodon, Submitted for Publication.

Charles Stuart, Scott Schwartz, Thomas Beeson and Christopher Owatz. Enterococcus faecalis: Its Role in Root Canal Treatment Failure and Current Concepts in Retreatment. J Endodontics, February 2006, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 93 – 98.

Tannaz Zandbiglari, Hendrik Davids and Edgar Schafer. Influence of instrument taper on the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated roots. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, January 2005, Vol. 100, No. 1, pp 126-131.

Peter Spili, Peter Parashos and Harold Messer. The Impact of Instrument Fracture on Outcome of Endodontic Treatment. J Endodontics, December 2005, Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 845 – 850.

Dean Baugh and James Wallace. The Role of Apical Instrumentation in Root Canal Treatment: A Review of the Literature. J Endodontics, May 2005. Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 333 – 340.

Robin McGurkin-Smith, Martin Trope, Daniel Caplan, Asgeir Sigurdsson. Reduction of Intracanal Bacteria Using GT Rotary Instrumentation, 5.25% NaOCl, EDTA and Ca(OH)2. J Endodontics, May 2005. Vol. 31, No. 5, pp 359 – 363.

Jeffrey L. Saunders, Paul Eleazer, Ping Zhang and Susanne Michalek. Effect of a Separated Instrument on Bacterial Penetration of Obturated Root Canals. J Endodontics, March 2004. Vol. 30, No. 3, pp 177 – 179.

Albrecht L., Baumgartner C., Marshall G. Evaluation of Apical Debris Removal Using Various Sizes and Tapers of ProFile GT Files. J Endodontics, June 2004. Vol. 30 no 6, pp 425-428.

Yi-Tai Jou, et al. Endodontic Working Width: Current Concepts and Techniques. Dental Clinics of North America. January 2004, Volume 48, Number 1, pp 323 – 335.

Usman N., Baumgartner C., Marshall G. Influence of Instrument Size on Root Canal Debridement. J Endodontics, February 2004. Vol 30 no 2, pp 110-112.  

Friedman, S. Treatment Outcome in Endodontics: The Toronto Study, Phase 1: Initial Treatment. J Endodontics, December 2003. Vol 29 no 12, pp 787-793.

William L. Wildey, E. Steve Senia. Straight-line Access – A Must for Faster and Better Endodontics. Dentistry Today, January 2003; Vol. 22: No. 1: pp 40-45.

Scott Rollinson, Fredric Barnett, Roy Stevens. Efficacy of bacterial removal from instrumented root canals in vitro related to instrumentation technique and size. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Sept. 2002, Vol. 94, pp 366-71.

Accuracy of a new apex locator: an in vitro study. International Endodontic Journal, 35, 186-192, 2002.

Siqueira, Jose F. Efficacy of Instrumentation Techniques (including Greater Taper Rotary) and Irrigation Regimens in Reducing the Bacterial Population within Root Canals. J Endodontics, March 2002. Vol 28 no 3, pp 181-184.

Schafer, Zapke. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Investigation of the Efficacy of Manual and Automated Instrumentation of Root Canals. J Endodontics, November 2000. Vol 26 no 11, pp 660-664.

Theodore M. Schaer, Esq. Disclosure: The Best Antiseptic to Prevent Lawsuits. The Redwoods Group Dentists Insurance Program Monthly Feature, October 2000.

An Overview of Nickel-Titanium alloys used in dentistry. International Endodontic Journal, 33, 297-310, July 2000.

PJ. Lumley. Cleaning efficacy of two apical preparations regimens following shaping with hand files of greater taper. International Endodontic Journal, 33, 262-265, May 2000.

Min-Kai Wu, Athena R’oris, Dimitris Barkis, Paul Wesselink. Prevalence and extent of long oval canals in the apical third. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, June 2000, Vol. 89, no. 6, pp 739-743.

Brett I. Cohen, PhD, Mark K. Pagnillo, BS, Barry Lee Musikant, DMD, and Allan S. Deutsch, DMD. An In Vitro Study of the Cytotoxicity of Two Root Canal Sealers. J Endodontics, April 2000. Vol 26 no 4, pp 228-229.

Min-Kai Wu, MD, MSD, PhD, Bing Fan, MS, DDS, and Paul Wesselink, DDS, Phd. Leakage Along Apical Root Fillings in Curved Root Canals. Part 1: Effects of Apical Transportation on Seal of Root Fillings. J Endodontics, April 2000. Vol. 26 no. 4, pp 210-216.

George B Shuping, Dag Orstavik, Asgeir Sigurdsson, and Martin Trope. Reduction of Intracanal Bacteria Using Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instrumentation and Various Medicaments. J Endodon, December 2000; 26:751-755.

Omar Gani, DDS, Carmen Visvisian, DDS. Apical Canal Diameter in the First Upper Molar at Various Ages. J Endodontics, Oct. 1999. Vol. 25 no. 10, pp 689-691.

J. Laszkiewicz, G. Gambarini. The Effect of Rotational Speed on Cyclic Failure of Profile .04 Taper Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments. Smile-Journal of Evolutionary Dentistry 1998; 1: 52-58.

B. Clark Dalton, Dag Orstavik, Ceib Phillips, Mary Pettiette, and Martin Trope. Bacterial Reduction with Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instrumentation. J Endodon, 1998; 24: 763-7.

Gianluca Gambarini. Flexibility of Profile Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments. Smile- Journal of Evolutionary Dentistry 1998; 1: 45-51.

Adali Efrain Velez, D. Denee Thomas, and Carlos E. del Rio. An Evaluation of Sterilization of Endodontic Instruments in Artificial Sponges. J Endodon 1998; 24: 51-3.

Shue-Fen Yang, Eric M. Rivera, Richard E. Walton, and Kirk R. Baumgardner. Canal Debridement: Effectiveness of Sodium Hypochlorite and Calcium Hydroxide as Medicaments. J Endodon 1996; 22: 521-5.

Juan H. Gutierrez G, Patricia Aguayo. Apical foraminal openings in human teeth – number and location. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiol Endod June 1995, Vol. 79, pp 769-777.

Mitzutani, T. Anatomical Study of the Root Apex in the Maxillary Anterior Teeth. J Endodontics, July 1992. Vol 16 no 7, pp 344-347.

William L. Wildey, E. Steve Senia, and Steve Montgomery. Another look at root canal instrumentation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992; 74: 499-507.

Sabala CL, Biggs JT. A standard predetermined endodontic preparation concept. Compendium 1991; 12: 656-661.

Kasmer Kerekes and Leif Tronstad. Morphometric observations on the root canals of human molars. J Endodon 1977; 3: 114-8.

Kasmer Kerekes and Leif Tronstad. Morphometric observations on root canals of human premolars. J Endodon 1977; 3: 74-9.

Kasmer Kerekes and Leif Tronstad. Morphometric observations on root canals of human anterior teeth. J Endodon 1977; 3: 24-9.

E. Steve Senia, F. James Marshall, Samuel Rosen. The Solvent Action of Sodium Hypochlorite on Pulp Tissue of Extracted Teeth. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology 1971; 31: 96-103.

David Green. A Stereo-Binocular Microscopic Study of the Root Apices and Surrounding Areas of 100 Mandibular Molars. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Dec. 1955, Vol. 8, pp 1298-1304.

Yury Kuttler. Microscopic investigation of root apexes. JADA May 1955; 50: 544 – 52.

Single Visit Endodontics

Trope M, et al.  Treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis: single vs. multivisit treatment 1999; 5:345-50.

Eleazer PD, and Eleazer KR . Flare-up rate in pulpally necrotic molars in one-visit versus two-visit endodontic treatment. J Endod 1998; 24: 614-6.

Jurcak JJ, Bellizzi R, Loushine RJ.  Successful single-visit endodontics during Operation Desert Shield. J Endod 1993; 19; 412-3.

Trope M.  Flare-up rate of single-visit endodontics. Int Endod J 1991; 24; 24-26.

Fava LRG.  A comparison of one versus two appointment endodontic therapyin teeth with non-vital pulps. Int Endod J 1989; 22; 179-83.

Pekruhn RB. The incidence of failure following single visit endodontic therapy.  J Endod 1986; 12; 68-72.

Southard DW, Rooney TP.  Effective one-visit therapy for the acute periapical abscess. J Endod 1984;10; 580-3

Oliet S.  Single-visit endodontics: a clinical study.  J Endod 1983; 9; 147-52.

Roane JB, Dryden JA, Grimes EW.  Incidence of postoperative pain after single and multiple-visit endodontic procedures.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1983; 55: 68-72.

Calhoun RL , Landers RR.  One-appointment endodontic therapy:  a nationwide survey of endodontists.  J Endod 1982; 8: 35-40.

Mulhern JM, Patterson SS, et al.  Incidence of postoperative pain after one-appointment endodontic treatment of asymptomatic pulpal necrosis in single-rooted teeth.  J Endod 1982;8: 370-5.

Pekruhn RB.  Single visit endodontic therapy: a preliminary clinical study. Journal of the American Dental Association 1981; 103: 875-7.

Soltanoff W.  A Comparative study of single-visit and the multiple-visit procedure. J Endod 1978; 4: 278-81.

Fox J, Atkinson JS, Dinin AP.  Incidence of pain following one-visit endodontic treatment.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1970; 30: 123-30. 

SimpliFill Articles

E. Steve Senia, Greg Goldfadden. Endodontic success and obturation: to have and to hold.  Endo Tribune, September 2008; Vol. 3: No 9, pp 1-6.

V. Gopikrishna, A. Parameswaren. Coronal sealing ability of three sectional obturation techniques – SimpliFill, Thermafil and warm vertical compaction – compared with cold lateral condensation and post space preparation. Aust Endod J 2006.

S. Jarrett, D. Marx, D. Covey, M. Karmazin, M. Lavin & T. Gound. . Percentage of canals filled in apical cross sections – an in vitro study of seven obturation techniques. International Endodontic Journal, 37, 392-398, 2004.

Shipper, Orstavik, Teixeira, Trope. In Vitro Microbial Leakage of Endodontically Treated Teeth Using New and Standard Obturation Techniques. J Endodon March 2004; Vol. 30, No. 3, pp 154 – 158.

William Wildey, E. Steve Senia. Another Look at Root Canal Obturation: part 2. Endo Practice, September 2002; Vol. 5: No 3, pp 7-12.

William L. Wildey, E. Steve Senia. Simple, Precise and Predictable Obturation. Dentistry Today, May 2002; Vol. 21: No. 5: pp 60-65.

William L. Wildey, E. Steve Senia. Another Look at Root Canal Obturation. Dentistry Today, March 2002; Vol. 21: No. 3: pp 68-73.

Sadegh Namazikhah. Dye Leakage Study: Comparing Conventional and New Techniques. CDA Journal, June 2000; Vol. 28, No.6, pp 435 – 442.

Maria D. Santos, William A. Walker, and David L. Carnes. Evaluation of Apical Seal in Straight Canals after Obturation Using the LightSpeed Sectional Method. J Endodon 1999; 25: 609-12.

SimpliFill Relevant Articles (Obturation)

Monticelli, et al. Efficacy of Two Contemporary Single-cone Filling Techniques in Preventing Bacterial Leakage.  J Endodon March 2007, Vol. 33, Number 3, pp310 – 313.

De-Dues, et al. Polymicrobial Leakage of Four Root Canal Sealers at Two Different Thicknesses. J Endodon October 2006; Vol. 32, No. 10, pp. 998 – 1001.

Tay, et al. Ultrastructural Evaluation of the Apical Seal in Roots Filled with a Polycaprolactone-Based Root Canal Filling.  J Endodon July 2005; Vol. 31, No. 7, pp. 514 – 519.

Whitworth, Baco. Coronal Leakage of Sealer-Only Backfill: An In Vitro Evaluation. J Endodon April 2005; Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 280 – 282.

Schaeffer, White, Walton. Determining the Optimal Obturation Length: A Meta-Analysis of Literature.  J Endodon April 2005; Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 271 – 274.

Shipper, Orstavik, Teixeira, Arnold, Trope. Periapical Inflammation after Coronal Microbial Inoculation of Dog Roots Filled with Gutta-Percha or Resilon. J Endodon February 2005; Vol. 31, No. 2, pp 91 – 96.

Shipper, Orstavik, Teixeira, Trope. An Evaluation of Microbial Leakage in Roots Filled with a Thermoplastic Synthetic Polymer-Based Root Canal Filling Material (Resilon). J Endodon May 2004; Vol. 30, No. 5, pp 342 – 347.

Tigos, Wu & Wesselink. An 18-month in vitro longitudinal leakage study on a new silicon-based sealer RSA RoekoSeal. ESE 10th Biennial Congress, October 2001. R30, pg. 12.

Costa, J. Johnson, R. Hamilton. Cross-Reactivity Studies of Gutta-Percha, Gutta-Balata, and Natural Rubber Latex (Hevea brasiliensis). J Endodon, September 2001; 27:6: 584 – 587.

S. Timpawat, C. Amornchat, W. Trisuwan.. Bacterial Coronal Leakage after Obturation with Three Root Canal Sealers. J Endodon, January 2001; 27:1:36-39.

N. Azar, M. Heidari, Z. Bahrami and F. Shokri. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of a New Epoxy Resin Root Canal Sealer. J Endodon August 2000; 26:462-465.

John Whithworth. Sealer Selection: a considered approach. Endodontic Practice (England); June 1999; 31-8.

Celso Luiz Cardoso, Cinthia Regiane Kotaka, Roberta Redmerski, Marcio Guilhermetti, and Alfredo Franco Queiroz. Rapid Decontamination of Gutta-Percha Cones with Sodium Hypochlorite. J Endodon 1999; 25:498-501.

Gabriele Leyhausen, Jurgen Heil, Georg Reifferscheid, Petra Waldmann, and Werner Geurtsen. Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of the Epoxy Resin-Based Root Canal Sealer AH Plus. J Endodon 1999; 25:109-13.

Jose F. Siqueira, Jr, Isabela N. Rocas, Helio P. Lopes, and Milton de Uzeda. Coronal Leakage of two Root Canal Sealers Containing Calcium Hydroxide after Exposure to Human Saliva. J Endodon 1999; 25: 14-6.

Kazuhiro Ono and Koukichi Matsumoto. Physical Properties of CH61, a Newly Developed Root Canal Sealer. J Endodon1998; 24: 244-7.

Tsui-Hsien Huang, Chia-Tze Kao. PH Measurement of Root Canal Sealers. J Endodon, 1998; 24: 236-8.

Jean-Yves, Pierre Machtou, and Jean-Paul Micallef. Analysis of Forces Developed during Obturations. Wedging Effect: Part II. J Endodontics 1998; 24: 223-8.

Dilek M. Dalat and Banu Onal. Apical Leakage of a New Glass Ionomer Root Canal Sealer. J Endodon 1998; 24: 161-3.

Jean-Yves Blum, Samir Esbar and Jean-Paul Micallef. Analysis of Forces Developed During Obturations. Comparison of Three Gutta-Percha Techniques. J Endodon 1997; 23: 340-5.

Dilek M. Dalat, and Larz S. W. Spangberg. Comparison of Apical Leakage in root Canals Obturated with Various Gutta-Percha Techniques Using a Dye Vacuum Tracing Method. J Endodon 1994; 20: 315-9.

Salam Sakal, Franklin S. Weine and Leon Lemian. Lateral Condensation: Inside View. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1991; 12: 796-802.

E. Steve Senia, Robert V. Marraro, James L. Mitchell, Andrew G. Lewis, and Lloyd Thomas. Rapid sterilization of gutta-percha cones with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. J Endodon 1975; 1: 136-40.  



Reasons For Most Safe-Failure Separations

August 21, 2008

1. Advancing LSX too rapidly: Rapid advancement overstresses the instrument by engaging too much dentin too quickly. Use the recommended technique of always advancing the LSX with a VERY SLOW and gentle pushing motion when it is cutting dentin.

2. Blade enters a “fin”: A fin is a narrowed extension of the main canal. When this configuration is seen at the canal orifice, remove or minimize the fin through proper coronal flaring. Of course, this configuration may occur more apically and may not be visible. Even though you do not see the fin, you may feel it (tactile feedback). The LSX will begin to chatter and this will be your clue. The solution is simple, always use s-l-o-w apical advancement. Upon encountering chatter, hesitate for a moment (stop apical advancement) and then continue advancing very slowly.

3. Using the wrong handpiece: A slow RPM and low torque handpiece doesn’t provide enough power to cut dentin efficiently. This causes excessive stress on the instrument. The EndoMate (set at 2500 rpm) or the EndoPAL are the handpieces of choice.

4. Using too much force: Trying to advance the LSX with excessive force (when it doesn’t want to) may cause it to buckle because its non-cutting pilot (tip) is not designed to cut dentin. Rather than using force, irrigate and try again with very slow apical advancement. If unsuccessful, try a K-file to smooth out the curve. When feeling an apical stop at the end of the canal, resist the temptation to push the instrument against the stop even if you believe you are still slightly short of working length. Simply readjust to the new “corrected” working length. Insisting on getting that last 1/4 to 1/2 mm is a major cause of separation.

5. Other possible causes of failures: a) Using a gel (for example, RC Prep) instead of a liquid chelating agent (EDTA); b) Not making “straight-line access” to the mid root of the canal; and c) Using the LSX too many times. As with all instruments, the more uses the greater likelihood for separation. As the “last resort”, the spade (flat) blade of the LSX often provides ample room for bypassing should the separated fragment be impossible to remove. In these cases, bypass with hand instruments (never rotary instruments) and get as much sealer and filling material around the fragment. There are several studies that show success rates are no better or worse with a broken instrument left in the canal. This assumes, of course, a well obturated canal and a quality coronal restoration.

Learning a new technique takes a little practice and patience. One needs to become familiar with the behavior characteristics of any new instrument. You may experience a few “safe – failures” while learning. If you do, appreciate the fact that they were retrievable. Then, review the possible reasons (above) and determine how this might be prevented in the future.

EndoVac Demonstration With Dr. John Schoeffel (CDA Anaheim 2008)

August 21, 2008
You can check out Dr. Schoeffel’s demonstration of the EndoVac by visting DentalCompare:

Dr. Frank Allen on Apical Cleaning

August 21, 2008
Here is the link of the complete recording (audio and video) of Friday’s Webinar on apical cleaning. It runs 80 minutes, about 30 of which are Q&A.

Article: Micro-Computerized Tomographic Analysis of Radicular and Canal Morphology of Premolars with Long Oval Canals. Source: OOOOE, August 2008.

August 20, 2008

Objective: Measure root and canal diameters and ratios, canal tapers and wall thickness.

M&M: Thirty human premolars with single canals were selected. Specimens were scanned using Micro CT and cross-sections analyzed at the following levels: 1,2,3,4,5,7,9,11 and 13mm from the radiologic apex.

Take aways:
1) At all levels, the BL (bucccolingual) diameter of the canal was greater than the MD (mesiodistal) diameter. This means that the canal diameter the dentist typically sees on the x-ray (MD view) was always smaller than the size of the canal they don’t see (BL view). For example, the data shows that at 1mm from the apex, the canal diameter as seen by the dentist averaged 0.32mm. However, in the view they don’t see, the canal diameter was much larger, 0.45mm. If one prepares the canal with a size #35 instrument the canal would be under prepared at the 1mm level because in reality one would have to go two sizes larger to a size #45 to properly clean the canal, 3-dimensionally.

2) The canal’s taper, in the BL dimension is much greater than the MD dimension. So the taper you don’t see is much larger than the taper you do see. Measurements taken in the MD dimension showed tapers ranging from (0.03 to 0.06 mm/mm) but in the BL dimension they were significantly greater (0.13 to 0.27mm/mm)! If one prepares the canal to a common taper (let’s say .04 taper) it more often than not under prepared in BOTH dimensions, particularly in the BL dimension (.04 vs. 0.18 average).

This puts serious doubt as to the efficacy of tapered preparations in general. Can one expect to effectively clean canals, with 0.04 or 0.06 tapered instruments, when the canal’s dimensions (at a minimum) are 0.45mm diameter with a 0.13 taper?

Article: Micro-computerized tomographic analysis of radicular and canal morphology of premolars with long oval canals. OOOOE, August 2008.


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